I came across some code recently that attempted a long series of steps, and on failure issued a notification. Something functionally similar to:

def complicated_method
  # Several calls to things that can raise
rescue RuntimeError => ex

At first instance, this seems appropriate. After all, Ruby defaults to raising a RuntimeError when not using a more specific exception:

def boom!
  raise "Hell"
rescue => ex

boom! # => #<RuntimeError: Hell>

There is a subtlety here: Ruby default to raising a RuntimeError, but defaults to rescuing a StandardError. A RuntimeError has a StandardError as an ancestor, which means that any RuntimeError will be rescued from a “naked” raise. However, when we specify RuntimeError as the rescue clause, we might miss a lot of exceptions that we thought we were rescuing, because they don’t have RuntimeError as an ancestor.

RuntimeError.ancestors # => [RuntimeError, StandardError, Exception, Object, Kernel, BasicObject]
ArgumentError.is_a?(RuntimeError) # => false
IOError.is_a?(RuntimeError) # => false
TypeError.is_a?(RuntimeError) # => false


When possible, always rescue specific exceptions, to avoid supressing exception. Failing that, rescue StandardError, not RuntimeError. Oh, and don’t rescue Exception.